The OAS concludes that Peru’s democracy “is in danger” due to the “political fragmentation” that the country faces

Pedro Castillo calls on the country’s political actors for dialogue after the OAS report


The high-level mission of the Organization of American States (OAS) that visited Peru at the end of November has concluded that Peru’s democratic institutions “are at risk” due to the “political fragmentation” facing the country.

The findings of the OAS High Level Group (GAN), which met up to 29 times with different branches of the State and private representatives and civil society, reveal that Peru faces a high level of instability that makes it difficult to govern and attend to the most important issues. urgent in the country.

This instability is based, according to the OAS, on the high fragmentation of political forces, on the constant changes in the formation of cabinets, the questioning of the appointment of officials, or even on the repeated requests of the opposition to cut the mandate of the Executive. and that the elections be advanced.

Likewise, the motions of censure presented against President Pedro Castillo (three to date), the multiple judicial investigations initiated against the head of state, and the absence of dialogue between the main public actors also aggravate the political crisis.

“The polarization is reflected in an internal struggle between the powers of the State (…) which can affect the normal institutional functioning and generate greater conflict and division in Peruvian society,” reads the statement released by the GAN.

“In the words of an interviewed actor (whose identity has been withheld), there is currently ‘a civil war between public institutions,'” the letter continues.


In its analysis of the political situation in the country, the OAS has shown its concern about the excessive use of political control tools, assuring that there are crossed accusations in which each party is accused of violating jurisdiction by carrying out actions outside its jurisdiction. competition.

Among these measures of political control, the inter-American organization has highlighted the “indiscriminate” use of motions of censure, Congress’s ban on the president to travel abroad, as well as recurring constitutional complaints.

As one of the actors explained to the GAN, Peru is facing a process of “judicialization of politics and politicization of Justice”, thus distorting the role and balance of State powers.

In this sense, the OAS has indicated that this “permanent confrontation” generates a loss of credibility on the part of the population, which sees different powers as actors that do not look after their interests.


Among other issues, the High Level Group has stressed, as some interlocutors have conveyed to it, that the election of Pedro Castillo as president of Peru has revealed that there are sectors that promote racism.

According to various actors with whom the OAS met, some of the country’s political powers do not accept that a person outside of traditional political circles occupy the traditional chair, which would have resulted in insults and insults towards the image of the head of state.

“Some interviewees maintain that discrimination also affects the 55 native peoples and 48 languages ​​that compromise the country’s cultural legacy, and which deserve respect and consideration,” reads the OAS statement.

All in all, although the actors interviewed have generally shown their predisposition to dialogue as an “essential part of the democratic exercise”, they do not maintain it with other counterparts that they consider questionable.

“In practice, this has been translating into difficulties, not only in the formal relationship between State powers, but even in the use of traditional informal institutions in Peru (…) such as the Council of State or the use of the Agreement Nacional, which have not been summoned”, has detailed the GAN.


Beyond the differences, the OAS has found a general conviction of the need to preserve democracy and respect the Constitution and the laws, which is why it has listed a series of recommendations to the different political actors to address the situation.

Among them is the call for a formal instance of dialogue between the Presidency, legislatures, high courts, representatives of political parties and members of civil society, all of them free of conditions.

In this sense, he has urged the Executive to take the first step and promote democratic dialogue to agree on “the rules of the game” to agree on a government agenda.

Likewise, the OAS has recommended starting a “political truce” while the dialogue is called and “a minimum consensus is reached to ensure governability.”

Third, it has indicated that “constitutional justice must be respected.” In this sense, he has indicated that the Constitutional Court (TC) “is the guardian of the Constitution and must enforce what the Constitution provides.”

It has also urged political actors to ensure “full respect for Human Rights” and to address the issue of tolerance and respect for “all citizens”, all following the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Lastly, the High Level Group has called for the exercise of freedom of expression “in a constructive, responsible, impartial and respectful way towards all the actors”.


The president of Peru, Pedro Castillo, has reacted to the OAS recommendations by calling on the heads of State institutions and political and social leaders to dialogue “for the governability of the country.”

“Continuing with the spirit with which I began my government and which is expressed in the recommendations of the OAS, I call on the heads of State institutions and the political and social leaders of the country to dialogue and ensure governability”, has indicated the president in the social network Twitter.

Castillo has highlighted the report of the OAS High Level Group on the political situation of the country, ratifying that his Government has been receiving “destabilizing attacks” by different State actors.

However, he has shown his willingness to “reject destabilization, wherever it comes from”, assuring that “it is time” to provide a quick solution to the needs of the Peruvian people, which would have been “postponed for many years.”

“I ratify that, despite everything, I will continue working for the validity of the constitutional rule of law, the balance of powers, democracy founded on the popular will and for a prosperous country that respects the powers of the State (…) The Peru needs us all,” said the president of Peru.

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