The date of September 8, 2022 It will be marked on the calendar after the death of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. The monarch, who has held office for more than 70 years, has died at 96 in “peace” and surrounded by her family, as reported by the house of windsor.
During his reign, which began in 1952, he has seen dozens of British Prime Ministers and Prime Ministers of other countries; seven popes and 17 olympic games. Hundreds of historical events have also occurred inside and outside the borders of your country. Some of them have marked his legacy.
Although it had not yet acceded to the Crown, the United Kingdom had to deal with the declaration of independence from India. Later, the decolonization processes of the 60s and 70s or the Malvinas War marked the period he remained on the throne. These were some of the most important historical moments of his reign.
1947 | Indian Declaration of Independence
In the second half of the 18th century, the English East India Company took control of Bengal and gradually expanded into other parts of India. The British Raj was formed. However, British rule ended in 1947 when the last viceroy of India, Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, announced that Great Britain had accepted that the territory be divided in two. On the one hand, India (majority Hindu) and, on the other, Pakistan, with a Muslim majority.
1953 | The Historic Tour of the Commonwealth
The British Empire had to undertake a transformation of the Commonwealth of Nations (Commonwealth). Between 1953 and 1954, Elizabeth II began a six-month tour around the countries that make it up. The queen became the first monarch to visit Australia Y New Zealand. Since then, this type of trip has characterized the agenda of the head of state.
1965 | First state visit to West Germany
In the midst of the Cold War, the British queen moved to the Federal Republic of Germany, where she spent ten days. That trip became the first official visit by a British monarch since 1913. The date chosen was not accidental, since 20 years since the end of World War II. The objective was to symbolize the reconciliation between the United Kingdom and Germany after years of confrontation. The pretensions of establishing an alliance between European countries already resonated in the minds of the leaders of the time.
1966 | Mining disaster in Wales
This disaster was one of the most critical moments of his reign. In October 1966, an avalanche of mud, water and debris from a coal mine buried a primary school in the village of Aberfan in south Wales. The tragedy caused the death of 144 people, 116 of them were children. Prince Felipe moved a day after the event, but Elizabeth II chose to delay her visit, something that generated enormous criticism in the country. Crown sources assure that the queen regretted that decision, which helped her to adopt a different attitude, closer to the British people.
Years 60 and 70 | decolonization
Meanwhile, the 1960s and 1970s were characterized by the decolonization processes that took place in Africa and the Caribbean. More than 20 territories declared independence to uk. This meant the dismantling of the British Empire and its hegemony during the 19th century and much of the 20th. This process opened the doors for the country to enter the European Economic Community (EEC).
1973 | Entry into the EEC
The United Kingdom entered the European Economic Community in 1973. At that time, the Government was headed by the conservative Edward Heath, who defended that entry would allow his country to be “more efficient and more competitive to win more markets, not only in Europe but in the rest of the world”. In 2016 the opposite process began, the exit from the European Union.
1982 | Malvinas War
The Falklands War raised the dispute between the United Kingdom and Argentina in 1982 for control of the Falkland Islands and associated dependent islands. The Latin American country claimed sovereignty over the islands since the British seized the territory in 1833 and expelled the Argentines who were there. The fight alone lasted three monthsfrom April to June, and ended with the English victory.
1984 | The cession of Hong Kong
On July 1, 1997, the Government of Margaret Thatcher agreed to return sovereignty over Hong Kong to China. Later, in 1986, Elizabeth II became the first British queen to visit mainland China. She visited, among other places, the Great Wall in Beijing. This meant a before and after in the relations between the House of Windsor and the Asian countrysince previously the monarch’s husband had caused diplomatic friction by pointing out that the Chinese capital was “terrifying” or by saying that “the Chinese stand out for their slanted eyes.”
2011 | Visit to the Republic of Ireland
In 2011, the queen visited Northern Ireland after being invited by the Irish president Mary McAleese. That trip made Elizabeth II the first monarch of the United Kingdom to visit the Republic of Ireland. That gesture sought to reduce tensions between one territory and another, with the scourge of terrorism in between.
2016 | yes to brexit
It was probably one of the most difficult and complex moments for British society. On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom began the process of disengagement from the European Union. The referendum held on that date reflected a 51.9% of voters in favor of leaving the community bloc and a 48.1% who chose to stay. That tight result was enough to initiate the disconnection of the country from the Union. On January 31, 2020, that decision materialized.