Isidoro Moreno: “We must apply a different logic in Andalusia, focused on their needs”

Isidoro Moreno is Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at the University of Seville. It was, by the Labor Party, one of the signatories of the Antequera Pact in 1978, a year after the 4D demonstrations, by which the political forces of that time committed to Then, in the 90s, it contributed to found, together Diamantino García, mythical worker priest, now deceased, the NGO Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos de Andalucía. Moreno, a reference figure for Andalusianism, member and spokesperson of the Andalucía Viva platform, attends Público 44 years after that historic December 4.

What does 4D mean today?

4D supposes the remembrance, to go back to memory the most important day in the contemporary history of Andalusia: the day that the Andalusians and Andalusians became a people to claim self-government, effective instruments in their own hands to be able to solve the secular problems of Andalusia . Today is not explainable without that December 4 in which the people overwhelmed the parties and, despite the fact that many considered that there was no sense of being Andalusian, that cry of self-government sounded very loud to the astonishment of almost everyone.

What remains of that spirit today?

The referendum of February 28 can only be explained through 4D and what happened afterwards. The 4D accelerated Andalusian political consciousness. Andalusia has always had a historical and cultural identity, but at that time it became a political subject, which scared many. Fruit of 4D, in one way or another, was the referendum of 28F and Andalucia broke the structure of the Spanish Constitution. Republican legality allowed the statutes of Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia to be approved. The coup d’état of July 18, 1936 interrupted the process already begun for the presentation of the Statute of Andalusia. These would be the true autonomies: the rest, which were called regions, had a shortened or even administrative autonomy. The path of 151 of the Constitution was impracticable, but, to everyone’s amazement, Andalusia traveled it anyway and won the referendum. That victory was only recognized months later. Andalusia conquered being in the first division of the CCAA, where there were only three.

What happened next? Like his own [Manuel] Clavero in an interview has recognized Andalusia was the last was the last full autonomy, but the first of 143, autonomy shortened, what we have had is a shortened autonomy. It is not an autonomy that is the result of 4D and 28F but is the result of the pacts of cuts of the autonomies that the UCD and PSOE made and then supported the PCE, a process that led to the LOAPA, Organic Law of Harmonization of the Autonomous Process. After 40 years of curtailed autonomy in which non-autonomist parties and people have governed permanently if we except the first two years of Rafael Escuredo’s presidency, there have been 40 years of anesthesia, carrots and deactivation of what the 28F meant and the 4D. Today we have less awareness of the people of Andalusia than what existed between 1977 and 1980. That awareness is what must be reactivated.

Has progress been made since that 4D?

Basically it is about analyzing well where we are and why there has not been this convergence with other peoples of the State and of Europe. In fact, what we have had is autonomy without instruments. And little political will to use those limited instruments. Andalusia is in the same place as in 1977. This does not mean denying that there have been changes. There have been, but no structural changes or changes in the direction of this convergence. We continue with three axes of the situation in Andalusia, which are three blemishes. One, economic dependence, extractivism. The extractivism of what they call economic resources, which some of us call Andalusian common goods, has even been accentuated, both in agriculture and in mining and also the dependence on what is increasingly a monoculture, which is mass tourism.

Secondly, the political subordination continues, Andalusia for the parties is basically the voting center for its objective, which is La Moncloa. None of the parties that the Junta has governed, the PSOE for 37 years and now the PP is interested in Andalusia more than as a field of votes to get deputies in the Madrid congress.

And three, the requirement that is in the Statute of Autonomy to deepen the historical and cultural identity and the internal diversity also of Andalusia has not been met. And of course, this has disarmed us. It is enough to know what is not studied to know why we are in this way, in a situation that I do not shy away from saying that it is quasi-colonial within the Spanish state and clearly colonial with respect to the EU.

To get out of this situation, a third referendum?

In a survey recently carried out by the Andalusian Studies Center, which is not suspected of radicalism, it has been reported that more than 31% of Andalusians consider that greater autonomy is necessary and this despite the years of chloroform of the psoist regime . A third of Andalusians consider that we have insufficient autonomy. As long as we do not have adequate instruments, among other things, that we can use ourselves, not at the service of party leaders in Madrid or interests in Madrid or Brussels, as long as there is not sufficient capacity for self-government, we must be aware that they will continue. the problems that Andalusia has at all levels. One would have to wonder why Andalusia has much higher levels of precariousness than other territories. These are structural issues, which have also been accentuated at the time of the so-called capitalist globalization. We should walk in the opposite direction from where they lead us.


They repeat to us that we must export more, economic growth … There we should apply a sentence attributed to Confucius: whoever is at the bottom of a well, the first thing they have to do is stop digging. Well, that is precisely what is applicable to Andalusia. The policies that we were told years ago that they were going to make us the California of Europe and the locomotive of Spain, precisely accentuate our economic dependence, our political subordination and our cultural degradation. It is necessary to suggest that Andalusians, at least an increasingly broad layer of Andalusians, assume that we need a different logic, decolonized, focused on the needs and interests of Andalusia as a people. Or there is awareness that the problems we have are due to our history, our present and because we do not have instruments of self-government in our hands, as long as we go better according to certain indices and logics, the reality we live is worse. One more example, hyper-intensive agriculture. Theoretically, that is generating wealth. In many places there is beginning to be a monoculture of what they call voltaic parks, charging the environment and being the monopoly of the big companies themselves. All that they call progress, modernization, growth is precisely what brings us to the bottom of the well every day, because they make us dig the well.

Is there an Andalusian know-how that is reviled?

I have written things using that phrase of Andalusian living knowledge. It has to do with our culture, with the way of being in the world, of relating to others, the way of interpreting and then expressing individual and collective experiences of life: communitarianism, union and other values ​​of culture traditional Andalusian. What is at the base of that is knowing how to live is classified as obstacles to modernization. That is to say, what the system is about, to a great extent, neoliberal globalization is that we refuse a very important part of that knowing how to live, for example, our love for social relationships, that is zero, because this it is wasting time in quotes, it is not producing. That Andalusian know how to live has a lot to do with non-utilitarianism, not considering that all the minutes of the day we have to put at the service of economic benefit, and also measured monetarily. That valuation of non-utilitarian social relations, that tendency to be together, that is deeply Andalusian. But precisely in this there are two fundamental enemies, one is the neoliberal globalization with its individualism, its productivism and the other the nationalism of the State that understands that in all cases the Andalusian elements are not specifically Andalusian, but Spanish. There is a vampirization of the elements of Andalusian culture by the Spanish story. Community ties, the current system is not interested in what is community, what is important is to accentuate and nurture consumerist individualism, the individualism of competitiveness, contrary to the values ​​of Andalusian culture. Without culture there is no possible change.

Is there a thread between 4D and the recent Cádiz strike?

There are structural causes. It seems very good to me and I sympathize with the struggles of the workers of Cádiz. It is a resistance struggle to survive, but the problem is that if there is not an adequate understanding of why in Andalusia the factory of a large company is closed and that of Getafe is expanded, if we do not enter what is at the bottom of that, the rest is bread for today and hunger for tomorrow. The confrontation is not directed at the root causes, but at the symptoms. If you are in severe pain, you take ibuprofen and the pain lessens, but not the causes of the disease. Either there is a global consciousness of the people or everything will be sectoral demands that will go to the consequences. Of course, that fight is better than watching self-destruction, but it will be largely sterile if it does not face a true transformation.

Is that Andalusianism in the games today?

There is a reactivation of Andalusianism, this will be seen on D4 and 28F, which will be on the eve of regional elections. For more than 30 years the PSOE and now the PP dress in green and white on specific occasions to appear as Andalusian. Those of United We can say that they are Andalusian and the other day they withdraw the amendment on the money to be spent on the expansion of the Cabril nuclear cemetery, but, yes, they say that they are very Andalusian. Andalusia is a nation-town and it has to do what the 4D and 28F already intended to do, equate itself to those other nationalities. There is a new wave of Andalusianism, but be careful with the waves, which come and go and allow skilled surfers to become visible, but some of us prefer to build foundations that are solid and consolidate our town consciousness. If there is not this and if you do not work from the bottom up in an alternative and confederalist municipalism, the possible, although difficult electoral successes would be temporary, as has already been demonstrated in the past.


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